As the most promising alternate for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) still face many issues that hinder their large-scale commercialization. Layered transition metal oxide cathodes have attracted widespread attention owing to their large specific capacity, high ionic conductivity, and feasible preparation conditions. However, their electrochemical properties are usually limited by the irreversible phase transition and harsh storage conditions caused by the humidity sensitivity. Recently, tremendous efforts have been devoted to solving these issues toward advanced high-performance layered oxides cathodes. Herein, we summarize these remaining challenges of layered oxides cathodes and the corresponding modification strategies, such as the variations in chemical compositions, the architecture of (nano)micro-structures, surface engineering, and the regulation of phase compositions. We hope that the understanding presented in this review can provide useful guidance to developing high-performance layer-structured cathode materials for advanced SIBs.